18-03-2018 13:45:52 ©Copyright free for the entire world population of citizens together to decide upon by collective public voting.
Disclaimer: My email firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org is defunt, deleted, unrecoverable and more as per my attempts till now – it had no recovery id. “I forgot the password” So good luck contacting me there..
Original File sent to UN HO, PMO, President and Ministry India, PMO Mauritius, and the UN.
This is a work in progress.
Italics: – personal advice.
Bold: – Headings and sub headings.
Underline in Blue: – Links to websites containing statistics, documentaries, and some techniques; and a few other webpages on my blog. I don’t earn any money from this blog. Neither do I count link clicks, nor do I assist any marketing or sales on this blog.
What if – buyers start receiving Earth wide currency (C-592J) in their one universal account equal to the cost price of, in addition to willingly receiving registered resources, goods and, services they choose to consume as per consumption terms and slabs that are implemented in R.R.R.B.E.S; and have to willingly provide registered resources, goods, or render registered services, to reduce unrefreshed balance in their account at their cost price?
What if – we combine an algorithmic minting system with Earth-wide population, that generates periodical currency, in accordance with resources, that are mined in addition to value of goods or services, that may be rendered with weekly/monthly/quarterly/yearly/5 yearly predictions by individuals and organizations responsible for them; to work off their debt to society and nature?
What if – it is combined with online availability of online and offline currency monitored by a regulated serial number system, and ATM like outlets, where bills are printed or outlet with prior information (on an additional charge at cost price to circumvent internet availability but restricting change of offline and online currency preference and ratio to 2 times.) along with digital availability accounted with a peer regulated system?
Add to it a centralized market where goods and services can be traded. (Think a global buying and selling website – Amazon + Flipkart + Snapdeal + eBay + all other eCommerce sites guided by a United Nations General Assembly request for merger.) R.R.R.B.E.S may work if we combine world governments and existing social networks and online retailers under one system powered by Artificial Intelligence or algorithms by Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, Amazon and more.
Of course, agreements can be made between persons, to work off accumulated C-592J. That’s how organizations would run. Each person responsible of initiating or joining into the organization will take the worldwide value rate ratio deduction at cost price, which will be equal to the value spent in the entire process of buying the initial resource to delivering to the person who wants it at cost price; The organization itself must process the entire resource, good or service by itself in a self-sufficient way, with an environmentally conscious, resource efficient, in a healthy and productive perspective and drive. However, the key difference is that since every transaction would be verifiable on both ends by the two users who transacted. Note that only two users alive can transact a refresh of C-592J, and since this transaction is verifiable by every other user globally on request by either one of the two users. Of course, bringing everyone under one financial cum calendar year is necessary for that.
What if – we make allowances for childbirth, child, teen, and young adult protection laws, education, child protection, medical care, minority issues, drug abuse and illicit trafficking, physical, and/or mental disability, especially challenged or specially enabled, rehabilitation, counselling the distressed, vipassana, yoga asana retreat, and the last rites of everyone living on Earth?There may be requirement for judiciary or a protection force which is still to be contemplated. In certain inaccessible areas with primitive population, or tribes that wish to be separate or are hostile appear – then, their accounts will be created and Earth-wide currency C-592J will be kept in reserve awaiting the day, on which they join the Earth community as one population.
What about it? Can you write an article about it?
Reason: –With limited resource availability a system that factors available resources with currency can check resource exploitation and ease social inequality. Especially this Resource, Repercussions, Reality Based, Economic Model.
Statistical proof: –“Think about how the world be like in 40 years”. (Isn’t it a long time away?)
Verify it http://www.worldometers.info/
Prove it http://world-statistics.org/
Know more about the world with these documentaries or newer ones: –
Disclaimer: –Buy originals, or watch online, or go search Netflix and Amazon TV etc. Google play store, iTunes (If they have videos now) or just YouTube them. Abstain from piracy because if you get blessings from God, Allah, Bhagwan, Universal Mind Grove, Singularity, Unconditioned states, the Universe and all previous and current names etc. Then, one must also know that Laws of Nature, that considers every thought; deliberate or automatic – wanted or unwanted – desired or imposed, as a prayer. When parents, priests, or others give blessings, or you receive it from others, by whatsoever means. The people whose work one will pirate, pirates or pirated also get a say when, they feel loss of income, their labour wasted on pirates and thieves. Why thieves? Do know that every original copy sold has a price, there are no free lunches, and every copy of an audio, images, text, video, operating system, application, software, game etc. counts down as Karma – which is based on the Laws that govern the unconscious mind. When Karma i.e. thoughts of the unconscious appear with or without stimuli, then Karma converts the bodily feelings as per the Natural Laws that govern all humans at the least. Eventually, years later it piles up and overwhelms a person. Especially children, teens, young adults – in addition to affecting anyone who shares them or receives them. I personally Shift + Delete all pirated and copyright infringed data (even to the extent of an offline copy of a blog post by someone else). I suggest you completely reformat your HDD at least 7 times to obstruct recovery. Do the same after shredding too. I looked at relevant copyrights and asked my brother once before Shift + Delete all his data that he did not want to sort as per copyright. He became much more productive and self-confident, enough to live on his own, I did too. Even my mother who had downloaded songs, from YouTube as mp3, was instructed to delete the songs herself. She accepted and complied which led her to becoming happier. I explained that yes god etc. is free for all. But one has to search for thus, oneself. Pirating someone else’s path or way as a heading direction on stormy days will just hamper their value as per relevant copyright. Searching online is not searching yourself, searching in a book is not searching yourself, neither is asking anyone else. So, “search”“your”“self” – which is below the identity, which is below the ego, which is below the super-ego.
Logic: – Instead of a cycle which has scope of huge diversity in income. This system factors individuals who take from a general pool and return to it as new resources are found the value of a unit of C-592J in accordance to the resources predicted is quantified, and then confirmed 3 months later along with the nullification of all difference in production, thus leading to all accounts of C-592J being refreshed or used in accordance to the difference that was predicted by every user themselves 3 months prior. Integration into R.R.R.B.E.S allows a person lifetime of all societal self-respect, empowering positive emotions, towards a self-sufficient world.
Learn resilience at: –
My views about vipassana: – www.anupamdwivediblog.wordpress.com/2018/02/25/life-and-career-seeking-fulfilment/
Dhamma website: – www.dhamma.org
Dhamma children website: – www.children.dhamma.org
Large vipassana centre in India: – www.giri.dhamma.org
Vipassana research Institute: – www.vridhamma.org
Heed this: – 2018 – 2020 is the time duration on Earth when this system can be implemented. Further, if you’ve watched, viewed, analysed and approximated from the above data; then, you’ll understand that technology and resources are prime now for the world to peacefully hibernate with this system, until we find more to do. This is all up to everyone and everybody on Earth is now responsible for the survival or demise of the species.
18-03-2018 13:45:52 © Copyright free for the entire world population of citizens together to decide upon by collective public voting for a better future.
C-592J – The base and only unit of currency of the Resource and Repercussion Reality-Based-Economic-Model (R.R.R.B.E.M)
Let’s lead with an example: –
Everyone who enters the system is given ‘X’ units of C-592J (say 20,000) units at worldwide start of R.R.R.B.E.S.
- Q) What is ‘X’?
X – Is the equal to the value of registered goods or services, that anyone who joins the system is ready to work for. This value is the same for everyone in the system, and, is to be decided by global public vote. This value loan is a debt to society and nature that each human alive is ready to work off in lieu for being born on this wonderful planet of Earth. No one can leave the system, when they agree with the rest of the world together, about whether the entire world, should globally implement this system together; even when one is dead due to force majeure, natural causes, or other causes valid legally in the world by mutual consent as per end of 2019. The records of all Active, Past, and Ancient users is kept on record.
- Q) How is everyone provided the initial amount of C-592J?
This allocation is done in 3 steps before the world-wide vote. Everyone connects and merges all their accounts into one account. After tax penalties and equating the average. Money is converted into C-592J after global limit that is same for everyone is decided by public worldwide vote. Then, this system will be switched on the first worldwide calendar cum financial year.
- Q) How many accounts can I keep in the R.R.R.B.E.S?
Every person is allowed only one account which is verified by finger thumb/ toe impression along with eye biometrics taken in person, along with signature and KYC documents such as permanent residence proof, and date of birth proof. The norms for the documents can be decided at the United Nations General Assembly.
- Q) How does the buying and selling work in the R.R.R.B.E.S?
Everyone gains the units of C-592J when they purchase a good or resource or are rendered a service. This is so as when one gets money for what they want to buy, or consume and with a limit placed on the maximum C-592J one can consume in 4 years say of 6,00,000/- (C-592J Six Lakh only or C-592J Six Hundred Thousand only). The ceiling on the number of units one can have is same for everyone as decided by averaging all real money available in the world. When one reaches the ceiling one cannot purchase any more goods/services.
- Q) What is real money?
This is the value of the total amount of money that is a cumulation of circulation in online and offline currency worldwide which is not transferred from someone else that may have saved it in an account by the bank or financial institution without their explicit legit signed agreement from the person the money was deposited by at the time of giving loans in written with agreement for the amount that is loaned out as credit in credit cards or loans. Pre-signed terms and conditions or bank policy is invalid as then the loans are not passed out to people with lower gross domestic income.
- Q) Is there a limit to the amount of C-592J that a person can refresh or compassionately transfer or loan on compassionate grounds by public vote.
Yes, a person can transfer a maximum of 10 percent of the global limit of C-592J for every person from his account in all loans distributed over 3 financial cum calendar years. Refreshing requires an actual transactions and trades as per norms of the R.R.R.B.E.S. Persons stuck with second level compassionate transfers can appeal to peer committees of minimum 1000 people along with a detailed description of reasons why one cannot continue keeping a second level compassionate transfer.
- Q) Reserve for systems of last rites of people worldwide, birth of children worldwide, education for children worldwide, and vipassana for people at 90% limit and above?
Total Active Users in R.R.R.B.E.S – The number of alive people who are registered in R.R.R.B.E.S
Total previous users of R.R.R.B.E.S – People who have died in the R.R.R.B.E.S
Total ancient users of R.R.R.B.E.S – All users whose unrefreshed currency has been accounted for by deducting a fraction of C-592J from all other Active users. After death all currency is transferred back as a fraction at the beginning of financial cum calendar year that is after 5 year since the status changed from previous user to ancient user. All this will be collected and distributed at the beginning of the World Unification Day which is the recurring anniversary of the calendar date, the system of R.R.R.B.E.S would be implemented worldwide.
- What happens when someone dies in the R.R.R.B.E.S?
- Every citizen of the world who is also a member of the contributes a fraction of their C-592 limit for last rites of every past user of the R.R.R.B.E.S.
- How are last rites of a past user decided?
- After deducting all expenses for last rites which are in accordance to his/her last rites decision, in event that his last rites were not decided, they are decided by a majority vote of surviving, family, relatives, and friends, or in event of voting with no outcome decided by universal system of cremation, to be decided before implementation of the system by the UN general Assembly.
- How are the last rites of an active user of the R.R.R.B.E.S decided?
- One active user may choose their method of last rites by themselves at and adult age of 25 and then update it or confirm it yearly at beginning of world-wide financial cum calendar year. Before the age of 25 is reached then the method adopted would be the method prevalent in the majority of the immediate family. In case of conflict a family vote will decide it. Default method will also be decided as per relevance in the country by judiciary.
Expected baby in the R.R.R.B.E.S – Any human in a 5-month pregnancy or above.
Baby born in the R.R.R.B.E.S – Any baby born successfully in the R.R.R.B.E.S
- What happens when a baby is born into the R.R.R.B.E.S?
- Every person in the R.R.R.B.E.S will dilute their currency. The entire amount of C-592J will be affected by the dilution in the same ratio for everyone. End of Month shall affect all refreshing and transactions. Accounts for babies being born up to2 years in the future to be made available and kept dormant from the date of beginning the Earth-wide operation of R.R.R.B.E.S.
- Every baby gets a new account and is transferred C-592J units which are accumulated from a direct transaction of equal value from each member of the R.R.R.B.E.S. These transactions will continue until the child is 20 years old. Primarily these transactions pay for the child’s education and education supplies and uniforms/dresses. These transactions are redeemed by children against refreshing their teacher’s, coach’s, trainer’s, counsellor’s, or educators’ accounts and accumulating debt which can be paid off against assignments, homework or projects completed. In exceptional cases children can also build products and invent new services which can be applied for registration after due testing with the regulatory body which may or may not approve it.
- Educated young adult in the R.R.R.B.E.S – Any child that has grown to the age of 20 along with clearing off the mandatory 16 years of education, 12 years of yoga asanas, sports or physical training, 3 extra-curricular activities lasting with at-least one lasting 3 years, and, anapana technique camps from ages 6+. children.dhamma.org
Communication allocation recommendations –
- Maximum allocation of 2 telephone numbers per person, which are connected to the Universal ID that contains eyes + fingers + toes + palm print + DNA swab which is mandatory while registering.
- Maximum 1 bank account containing only C-592J for each person registered with the Universal ID only.
- Maximum 1 telephone number that can be connected to the Internet services.
- At least 1 telephone number that is purely offline (meaning without internet or ability to receive marketing or advertising; text messages of mandatory education being received until age of 20 can be sent to this phone. The ability to transferC-592J balance in the offline phone is mandatory.
- Only 1 personal non-changeable undeletable email id that is hosted on secure servers with ~4096-bit encryption. The 1 bank account that each person possesses, will be linked to this 1 personal email id.
- Maximum 1 business cum professional email-id, that can be used after paying recurring or 1-time value for it. The person cannot transfer any emails, from personal to professional email id’s or professional to personal emails email id’s. Exception in personal to professional email is when each person requests a transfer that is monitored and approved by at least 2 levels of HR and 1 level of Administration from within the organization they are working for. After affirmative approval from all three tiers, the email from the person’s personal email id is sent to the professional email id.
- Current users on the internet and the data that has been collected from them since inception to be made available to them for verification as per their requirement. Each user cum person to be given options of total disclosure today personally, in 5 years, or mandatorily in 10 years after which all data still unverified to be revealed anonymously. Yes, I used to research spirituality and pirate games, movies, music, Tv shows before 2011. I watched porn for 15-16 years continuously which grew steadily worse, and struggled with quitting porn since 2010. I took 10 years of multiple medication that made me unable to speak emotionally which led to me bursting in anger about twice every year – with 6 different diagnosis by reputed heads of departments before finally revealing everything to my family and taking 2+ years of counselling from HOD of largest govt. hospital in India. It was not pretty when my internet searches started appearing in my porn windows, thus trying to manipulate my deepest issues. If this system is not accepted, I will file a cumulative PIL against porn sites in India after training every porn addict I can find as I go from door to door myself.
Note:Artificial intelligence may just start WW3 if left unregulated by catering one type of post. E.g. Facebook. What if journalists are catered anti-user posts, and user’s anti-journalist posts. This is all up to Facebook ethicality and can be regulated only by your consent. I’ll write an article on this one day.
Earth benefit Index (WIP): It is also the minimum value of debt to society and nature that anyone who enters the system has repaid that is analysed in state wide contests worldwide every year.
What are the factors of Earth Benefit Index:
- Resources Conservation,
Factors of Requirement:
- Is it essential for survival in a wholesome and healthy way?
How is cost to environment decided?
- Recyclability, availability, and usability in accordance with judicious use as per potential good of the society.
Each unit of C-592J has a unique alpha-numeric-symbol serial code and can be transferred as debt a maximum of 2 times to others before needing to be refreshed.
A unit of currency is refreshed when a person/organization, sells a resource/good/service to a registered person in the system. The serial number of the currency is tracked and all redemption is recorded.
These are slabs on the limit, the closer the person is to the limit, the more restricted one is to bare necessities.
Slabs of consumption restriction in R.R.R.B.E.S
- Q) When a person is at 0% one can buy any product that is available.
- Narcotics, hard, soft or recreational drugs, and intoxicants such as alcohol and cigarettes can only be brought with medical fitness test from a registered Senior MD + MBBS doctor’s prescription. And a mental fitness test from a registered psychiatrist, with assistance with a registered psychologist leading to at least 3 different counselling sessions of 1 hour each; over 2 weeks before being prescribed any medication or the mental fitness certificate. A person requires a minimum age of 30 for experimenting first.
- All luxury items, including bars, lounges, 5-star hotels, expensive cafés etc. reserved in a special part of the city known as the “are you winning the game of life?”
- All registered goods, services, and resources are available to buy at this point.
- Best strategy is to assist in a compassionate loan appeal of a fellow active user of R.R.R.B.E.S.
- Q) When a person is at 20% of the global limit of C-592 J for every person one cannot directly or indirectly buy, facilitate, or procure.
- Narcotics, hard, soft or recreational drugs, and intoxicants such as alcohol and cigarettes even if he gets a medical fitness certificate and a mental fitness certificate.
- All luxury products are restricted and cannot be experienced unless already procured and in possession with bill details.
- Q) When a person is at 55% of the global limit of C-592 J for every person one cannot directly or indirectly buy, facilitate or procure.
- Q) When a person is at 80% of the global limit of C-592 J for every person one is restricted to his essentials and bare necessities.
- Q) When at 90% of the global limit of C-592 J for every person.
-Recourse A) A person turns himself up to social services, and volunteers at vipassana or attends a meditation course to begin self-healing.
Recourse B) A person is able to appeal to public in a procedure that will take 3 months max for a compassion-based loan transfer of money which is decided by vote of at least the number equal to the maximum limit of C-592J that a person can possess. Persons with amounts closer to 0% will be asked first. People who want to loan the person the money will give a detailed life plan with the schedule of what the person wants to do first with the petition of the compassion based public loan amount. A fraction will be deducted from the maximum amounts of each person approving the debt to y and nature. people in addition to debt to society. The person loaned the C-592-J cannot pass it on to anyone else and must only work off the debt.
When a person is at 100% he she is restricted from buying goods/ resources or services.
Further policy recommendations:
If Person 1000 is sick / incapacitated – there are policies for the same which will be decided by public vote before the system comes into effect.
If Person 1000 is differently abled or especially abled, there are policies for the same which will be decided by public vote before the system comes into effect.
How does one enter R.R.R.B.E.S?
Living in R.R.R.B.E.S
- How do I purchase goods and services?
- You can purchase goods online and offline. Ordering a good or service online incurs delivery and convenience charges. Goods and services can be incurred offline with other R.R.R.B.E.S users.
- How do I work off my C-592J units?
- One can either provide a good or service along with the cost price amount of his C-592J units.
- What if I work off all my C-592J units?
- Then, one would need to be transferred C592-J units compassionately. Do Note that a unit of C592-J can only be transferred compassionately twice.
- You earn by working for someone else in the system by propagating a good or service as per norms.
- What if I reach the global C-592J ceiling?
- Why are there slabs of consumption?
- To moderate consumption and maintain resource allocation that is beneficial to society.
So, you want to educate people in R.R.R.B.E.M?
How does a school/college/coaching centre come into being?
- A group of teachers, administrators, and support staff who have accumulated enough learning will share it with others to verify its relevancy and cement the learning as the 5th stage of learning is teaching someone else who wants it. Thus, working off the accumulated C-592J in their account.
Features of C-592J
- Every unit of C-592J has a unique serial number to identify it. All offline and online units of C-592J contain unique alpha-numeric-symbol patterns. The same system will monitor all units because there will be no separate systems for offline and online units. An offline unit can be transferred online or vice-versa by paying the exact numeral cost price to the system which will also deplete existing account balance. Thus, continuous shifting from online to offline is restricted to 2 times.
- An adult (25 years due to brain fully developing at ~25 years of age) decide how much offline, and how much online, global currency of C-592J is allocated, to you when you complete 25 years of age. Before 25 years of age every child and teen, young-adult will use offline currency, which is refreshed, with eye, palm and at least 3 finger/toe biometric, else a DNA swab which is recorded in audio and video all cases. All transactions are recorded into the system before and when a C-592J is refreshed.
- Every unit of C-592J needs to be refreshed by rendering goods or services against it. An accumulation of all global world-wide laws and directives that safeguard, children, teen and young-adult protection laws to be added by a world-wide vote.
- Every unit of C-592J can be delegated to other users. The limit of transferring the same unrefreshed C-592J unit from user to user/organisation is a chain of maximum 2 users. In case of death with unrefreshed currency the same is deducted as an equal fraction amount from each other user of the (R.R.R.B.E.S).
- C-592J can only be refreshed against registered and monitored, resources, education, goods and or services. Illegal activities like drugs, narcotics, intoxicants, and societally offensive products as decided by vote while registering all goods and services and updated by world-wide vote every 6 months to gauge its relevance is mandatory. Stake holders, shareholders and anyone investing in these products or their families are not allowed to vote. Their vote may be counted and gauged separately.
- Each unit of offline i.e. Printed currency is monitored by a tracker and with QR code and bar-code every time it is refreshed (i.e. scanning goods and services in addition to the vendor and buyers’ bio metrics of available eyes, finger-prints, palm-prints, and all toes of the feet or DNA which is recorded in audio and video in all cases. If someone is unwell or cannot go to the vendor, then either it is delivered and authenticated, as the request will contain a please authenticate when delivered, in addition to be authenticated at both the time of ordering and delivering on both ends.
- Q) How is the value of one unit of base currency decided?
– The currency is minted by a world-wide bitcoin like minting algorithm which factors the cost price of all resources, goods and services with the total active and previous users of (R.R.R.B.E.S). It also means that all transactions will be available with all other users’ records. Active users can verify all their transactions with other users on request if they are not part of the transaction too; and with the system by default.
- Q) How are all available resources identified?
– This is done by registered offices, organizations who upload the probable quantity of resources/services/goods that are predicted to be sold as per current available data one week/month/quarter/year/5 years prior to the actual date of mining resources/ producing, packing, and delivering goods/ rendering services.
- Q) Can the value of C-592J change?
– Yes, the value of C-592J is variable depending upon the total value of all available resources/services/goods and the total number of users in R.R.R.B.E.S.
- Q) How is the value of C-592J updated?
– The process is a two-phase process.
Phase – 1
One week prior to launch of system, the total value of all available resources for the coming week is estimated.
Phase – 2
The value is updated on all R.R.R.B.E.S devices in global synchronicity. This is repeated every day at 00:00 GMT on Earth-wider synchronicity and rechecked every month end and quarterly too.
A few questions in which your suggestions will assist the world on Earth: –
Q1) How are goods manufactured?
Q2) How are services traded?
Q3) How is a person reimbursed?
- When a person trades in a good, service, or resource then he is debited money in the amount equal to the prior decided price.
Q4) How is a price of a good and service decided?
- Cost to environment and society.
Q5) How is cost to society decided?
Q6) How will vipassana be changed after the unified world. How will ‘dana’ work?
- Anyone who attends and completes 3 courses can volunteer a part of their C-592J how can this work?
S6) How will vipassana be changed after the unified world. How will ‘Nirswarth-dana’; (self-less donation) work?
- Everyone in the world will contribute an equal fraction of their maximum limit to
Formulae needed for: Value rate ratio deduction at cost price.
Humble and polite request: – To reply to this project, contact the Prime Minister’s office + The President’s office in your country. Your demographic leader and local, state or national level politician, Members of the United Nations and their respective heads and diplomats, your family, relatives, friends, and loved ones, and anyone who follows you online, you are connected with, or you have contact information of via email. It is essential that every major social media owner and leaders of MNC organizations receive a copy. It’s all yours to liaison. Feel free to print out the documents, and share at your own cost and expenses, for all Earth as one. However, do check my blog for updates between 14th and 18th of every month starting April 2018 on Earth. I check my email once every 15 days or so. My email email@example.com is unrecoverable as per my attempts till now – it had no recovery id. So good luck contacting me there.
18-03-2018 13:45:52 ©Copyright free for the entire world population of citizens together to decide upon by collective public voting for a better future.
From the entire history of “vipassana” students, in this tradition of ages past preserved by: –
Saya Thetgyi (1873-1945): – http://www.vridhamma.org/Teachers-1
Ven Ledi Sayadaw: – http://www.vridhamma.org/Teachers-2
Sayagyi U Ba Khin (1899-1971): – http://www.vridhamma.org/Teachers-3
Passed down to India by: –
S.N. Goenka: – http://www.vridhamma.org/Teachers-4
and the current teachers, assistant teachers, dhamma workers, volunteers, all students ever – old, current, new, and those still to be taught.Self-realize, be liberated, BE HAPPY! be peaceful, be liberated, liberated, liberated, unto everchanging life in divisions of∞ All becoming ~every milli^micro^nano^pico^bazillion^gazillion^squillion. That is i.e. decide, scale, flow, metaphorically – i.e. Conscious mind, Subconscious mind, Unconscious mind and Deep Mind respectively all answerable to the previously named – (Singularity or Unconditioned State or unending infinite nature etc. that changes its nature each time we name it or make it existent).